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Polygonum cuspidatum is a perennial herb belonging to the Polygonaceae family. Rhizomes stout, stem erect, to 2 m tall, hollow, leaves broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, subleathery, glabrous on both surfaces, apical acuminate, base broadly cuneate, truncate or suborbicular, stipule sheath membranous, panicle, unisexual, dioecious, axillary; Bracts funnelform, perianth light green, achene ovate, glossy black brown, flowering in August - September, fruit in September - October.
Shaanxi, Gansu, East China, Central China, South China, Sichuan and other places; Korea and Japan also have distribution. Born in hillside thickets, valleys, roadside, field side wetlands.
Rhizomes are used for medicine, promoting blood circulation, dispersing blood stasis, relieving menstruation and relieving cough.
Herbs perennial. Rhizomes stout and transverse. Stems erect, 1-2 m tall, stout, hollow, with conspicuous longitudinal ribs, with small protuberance, glabrous, scattered red or erythema spots. Leaves broadly ovate or ovate-elliptic, 5-12 cm long and 4-9 cm wide, subleathery, apically acuminate, base broadly cuneate, truncate or suborbicular, margin entire, sparsely tuberosity, glabrous on both surfaces, tuberosity along veins; Petiole 1-2 cm long, tuberculate; Stipules sheath membranous, oblique, 3-5 mm long, brown, longitudinally veined, glabrous, apex truncate, glabrous, often ruptured, caducous.
Flowers unisexual, dioecious, inflorescences paniculate, 3 -- 8 cm long, axillary; Bracts funnelform, 1.5 -- 2 mm long, apically acuminate, glabrous, with 2 -- 4 flowers per bract; Pedicels 2 -- 4 mm, lower articulate; Tepals 5 deeply lobed, light green, male tepals with green midvein, wingless, stamens 8 longer than perianth; Female perianth segments outside 3 dorsal winged, enlarged when fruit, wings extended decurrent, style 3, stigma fimbriate. Achenes ovate, 3-ribose, 4-5 mm long, dark brown, lustrous, enclosed in persistent perianth. Flowering from August to September, fruiting from September to October.