Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-03-16 Origin: Site
Flower thinning selection
Ginseng is propagated by seed propagation. When selecting seeds, generally choose the seeds of five-year-old ginseng plants with strong plants, more seeds, strong stress resistance, no pests and diseases, and good growth. Less than five-year-old ginseng seeds are not full enough; older than five-year-old ginseng is generally harvested and processed for sale without leaving seeds. The inflorescence of five-year-old ginseng has 40 to 50 flowers, and the seeds mature successively because the flowers open from the outer edge to the inner side. After harvesting, the mature and plump seeds can be selected for direct sowing, but in order to make the ginseng seeds emerge quickly, well and neatly, generally in the flowering stage of ginseng, the flowers on the inner and outer sides of the inflorescence are manually removed, and only the 25 flowers that grow more neatly in the middle are left. ~30 flowers are planted, and harvested from mid-late July to mid-early August when the ginseng fruit turns dark red. After harvesting, rub off the peel and pulp to obtain ginseng seeds, and then remove impurities. Generally, the seeds are large and plump, white in color and without disease spots.
Ginseng seeds are deeply dormant seeds. In addition to the necessary conditions for germination, it also takes a certain amount of time to germinate. Therefore, ginseng seeds need to be treated for germination.
When germinating ginseng seeds outdoors, use gibberellin 920 and room temperature water as a ratio of 1 g: 17.5 kg, soak for 12 hours, or soak in room temperature water for 36 to 48 hours, remove the ginseng seeds and mix them with about 3 times the amount of river sand and fine soil. Evenly, pour the right amount of water, keep 10~15% moisture, and put it into the germination wood tank. The length of the wooden trough depends on the number of seeds. It is 30-40 cm high and 50-100 cm wide. It is best to have 5 cm thick clear sand around it to facilitate germination and reduce seed rot. The wooden trough is placed in the soil pit dug in the leeward and sunny place, and the soil around the wooden trough is fully cultivated to ensure that the temperature and humidity in the wooden trough can be maintained within the required range. After the wooden trough is covered with soil, cover it with a wet reed curtain (grass curtain) or set up an awning to prevent sun exposure and strong rain. Keep the temperature at 20~25℃. If the temperature is too low, it can be covered with plastic film in time; if the temperature is too high, ventilation can be appropriately increased to prevent rotten seeds. In the early stage of germination, turn it every 4 to 6 days, and in the middle and late stages, it can be turned every 10 to 15 days. The specific turning time is adjusted according to the temperature and humidity, and appropriate water can be added during the period. After about 3 months, the seeds gradually crack, and when the crack rate reaches more than 90%, the germination is completed, and sowing can be carried out. Use wooden boxes that are easy to move and turn around, and take care to maintain proper temperature and humidity. The germination process can also be carried out indoors.
Before sowing, ginseng seeds need to be sterilized. According to the length of disinfection time, it can be soaked in 1% formalin solution for 10 minutes; or in Bordeaux solution for 15 minutes; or in carbendazim 500 times solution for 2 hours; or in 10% garlic juice for 12 hours. After disinfection, rinse with clean water several times.
It is cold in winter and generally not sown, but can be sown in the other three seasons. Spring sowing, mid-April to early June, choose 5 cm ground temperature and 2 ℃ to sow the germinated seeds, and seedlings emerge in about half a month; summer sowing, July to August, sow the seeds harvested or stored in the same year, the second spring Emergence; autumn sowing, from September to before freezing, sow the germinated seeds when the ground temperature of 5 cm drops to 5 °C, and seedlings emerge in about half a month.
First flatten the border surface, dig out a furrow groove with a depth of about 4 cm and a groove edge of 5 cm, and then plant the seeds. Generally, there are three methods: point seeding, broadcast seeding and drill seeding. Among them, a large number of seeds are required for sowing, and the emergence is uneven; the drilling area is large, and the emergence is uneven; the number of seeds required for on-demand seeding is more economical and economical, the emergence is uniform, the ginseng seedlings are larger, and the yield is high, so The seeds are generally seeded on demand.
On-demand seeding, also known as hole seeding, the row spacing is 5 cm × 5 cm, 5 cm × 10 cm or 6 cm × 6 cm, after digging the holes, sow 1~2 seeds in each hole, and cover the soil with a thickness of 3~4 cm. Sow 15 to 20 grams per square meter. After sowing, straw, grass or corn stalks should also be covered, and a certain amount of soil should be covered to ensure temperature and humidity. If the seedlings are properly managed after sowing, and the 5cm x 10cm and 6cm x 6cm holes are adequately fertilized, the seedlings will grow well and yield higher in the later stage.